"A joint decision between NZC and the @BCBtigers has been made to cancel the Hagley Oval Test," the New Zealand team tweeted
Coach Gary Stead said scans had detected a tear to Williamson's left pectoral minor muscle in his shoulder.
Of the 20 Bangladesh wickets to fall, Wagner took nine, including five for 45 in the second innings.
"I told Hogan (Crowe) 'my apologies' for taking so long to get there," said Taylor
Taylor, dropped twice on 20, proceeded to punish the Bangladesh attack with a rollicking 200 from 212 balls before New Zealand declared at 432 for six
New Zealand will resume on Monday with Ross Taylor on 19 and Kane Williamson on 10.
New Zealand lead the series after taking the first Test in Hamilton by an innings and 52 runs.
Further showers were forecast for Saturday morning, with the weather expected to improve later in the day.
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